CSS Is A Lie.

According to Wikipedia:

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language.


CSS specifies a priority scheme to determine which style rules apply if more than one rule matches against a particular element. In this so-called cascade, priorities or weights are calculated and assigned to rules, so that the results are predictable.

From my informal office survey, the general consensus is that the most important thing™ in CSS is that everything ‘cascades’ correctly. That is, that rules and styles defined further down in a CSS document override styles specified further up in the document (excluding the !important operator of course, which you should not be using anyways). It makes sense if you think about it, after all it’s not called a Cascading Style Sheet for nothing.

Now, the test. Given the following HTML and CSS snippet, what color will the two paragraphs be?


<p id="myid" class="myclass">
   Hello World.

<p class="myclass">
   This is another line of text


#myid {
   color: red;

.myclass {
   color: blue;

p {
   color: green;

The Answer:
Hello World is red, the second line of text is blue.

Don’t believe me? I put up a demo page with just the html and css here.

After a decent amount of Googling and reading blogs and the W3C Spec on CSS Selectors, I realize now how styles are calculated and applied, but seems to go completely against the ‘cascading’ nature of style sheets since the cascading nature of style sheets only applies when the ‘specificity’ values are the same.

For example, the following snippet behaves as you would expect:


p {
   color: gray;
   font-size: 20px;

/* ... later ... */

p {
   color: green;

As you might expect the paragraph will be green, and have a font size of 20px. The rule that is more specific selectors takes precedence over rules that are less specific regardless of where that rule is declared in the markup. You can mentally calculate how specific a rule by the ‘level’ and number of the selectors used. From low to high, you have

  1. Element and pseudo elements such as p, a, span, div, :first-line
  2. Class, attributes, pseudo-classes .myclass
  3. Id attributes #myelement #theonething
  4. From inline style attributes
  5. !important

If there’s anything of a higher level, the higher level overrides the lower level style, and if they’re the same level, the higher count wins, and if they’re at the same level with the same count (.myclass, and .myotherclass) then the one further down takes precedence, this is the “only” time cascading actually happens.

Its something that is unfortunately very subtle because of the way we write CSS, your taught from the begin to start with the most basic generic styles and work your way through the more specific styles. While this is correct, it’s very easy to go for a long time without running into a situation where a more specific styles.

I had no idea up until about a week ago that CSS worked like this. I always assumed that specificity was only used to select the subset of elements the rule applied to, and that if you applied a more general rule after a more specific rule that the more general rule would overwrite anything earlier. This is obviously not the case. If you want to read more, here’s some links to a few more comprehensive articles on the subject:

CSS Specificity and Inheritance: http://coding.smashingmagazine.com/2010/04/07/css-specificity-and-inheritance/

Star Wars and CSS Specificity: http://www.stuffandnonsense.co.uk/archives/css_specificity_wars.html

Specifics on CSS Specificity: http://css-tricks.com/855-specifics-on-css-specificity/

Art and Zen of CSS: http://donttrustthisguy.com/2010/03/07/the-art-and-zen-of-writing-css/

Designing For Code: Copy & Paste

As a developer, I’m constantly on the web. Learning, reading, finding solutions to problems or looking up odd bugs. There is a great community of developers that are constantly publishing solutions / fixes / workarounds / techniques for the benefit of their fellow developers. Being developers, you would expect to find that the sites they run are easy to use across the board! For the most part they are but every now and again though I run across a site that makes me want to bash my head against the monitor. Why? Because it breaks the simplest feature:

Copy. Paste.

If you EVER post code on the web on a site you control, or if you are in charge of a site where you or others post code. Make. Sure. Copy. Paste. Works. Period. I’m not just talking about ‘I can select it and paste it’ functionality, I’m referring to those ‘code highlighting’ plug ins that add line numbers to EVERY SINGLE LINE of a code snippet when you paste.

Don’t Do It.

There are lots of good highlighting plug ins out there, sites that will format your code for you, and so on. Whatever method you chose, test it and make sure you can use the code from your site without having to modify or do anything to it. If you can’t, abandon it. Find something else. Use raw text. Whatever it takes to get the basics working well.

In addition, make sure your code works well when the site is scaled up or down. If you have a site that doesn’t change width as the browser size changes, ignore this, and read this post on fluid layouts: http://blogs.interknowlogy.com/2011/10/25/on-modern-layo…mi-fluid-grids/. Now IF your site changes width, your code should ALWAYS work on whatever size the visitor is looking at the site on. Check it on a smart phone. Check it on a tablet. Stretch your site across two wide screen monitors. If it ‘breaks’ (as in becomes unreadable or inaccessible) fix it. Go back to the basics. Remove / alter / don’t use a plugin. Again, do whatever it takes to make the basics work.

Don’t underestimate the importance of the small supposedly insignificant details. In all honesty, users aren’t going to come to your site and praise you for what an elegant job you did on making your code easy to copy and paste, or how nice the content looks, or how readable the article is. Its similar to the way people will notice spelling and grammar. If your sentences are well formed and correct and the article is well structured the person reading should never have to mentally think about it. On the other hand, if an article is not well crafted, that person will have to wade through the mistakes and mentally jump between what was actually written and what the author intended. In same way, whatever type of content you present to a visitor, it should always be presented it in such a way that the person consuming it can do so without ANYTHING getting in the way of them doing so effectively.

Think about it. Go check your site. Make the net a better place.

Invisible extra line height

I came across this annoying off by one pixel layout issue several days ago when dealing with <code> tags. You may not even guess that its caused by it at first, but if you ever try to test your layout with a baseline script, you may notice this.

Take a good look at the following screenshot and tell me, are these two paragraphs the same height?

The correct answer is No. They’re not. If you look at the line height, the font size, almost everything you’ll find that these two paragraphs are exactly the same with the exception of the <code> tags in the second paragraph. Digging in deeper you’ll see the following problems with the paragraph height:

Four. Pixels. Taller. *explicitive*. Most people wouldn’t care, or even notice unless you were using a baselineing tool like Typesetter. The solution, after much digging around, is to set the line height of <code> tags to zero.

code {
     line-height: 0;

And like magic, all of a sudden your paragraphs now behave correctly. This may be classified as a bug, at the very least, its an annoyance, but if you find yourself having problems with your paragraph line heights not behaving quite right, take a look and give this a shot.

Tip: Using zoom to target images to high density displays

I found this several days ago when I was looking for a way to scale images on an iPhone inside of a fluid layout such that they would display at a 1:1 pixel ratio. If you didn’t already know, the iPhone 4 and 4S displays everything as if the screen was the same size as a normal iPhone when it measures and does the layout. The result is that all the text looks extremely crisp, and any sites already designed for the original iPhone don’t break or look weird. With images this means that a 300 x 300 pixel image displays the correct size in the layout, but is essentially scaled up to fit over 600×600 “physical pixels”. As I was poking around I found an old CSS zoom property here: http://reference.sitepoint.com/css/zoom that for some reason works on mobile safari. Add a media query for 2x density screens, and viola! Your images now display at physical pixel dimensions on the iPhone 4 and 4S.

Here’s what the CSS looks like:

@media screen and (-webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 2) {
     img {
          zoom: 50%;

Awesome hacks.

Happy img scaling.

On Modern Layouts and Semi Fluid Grids

Over the last several weeks, I’ve really been digging into HTML5, CSS3, and really figuring out what modern browsers can do. Frankly browsers have grown by leaps and bounds over the last several years, and as such we need to re-evaluate how we build websites. Especially in regards to how we treat older browsers. I recently read this post by Paul Irish and he points out that ideally, each browser gets an experience that is customized to that browser’s capabilities. What this means however, is that we should expect older browsers to get an experience that isn’t exactly the same as the experience we get on a modern one. (Example, no rounded corners. No text shadows. Etc…)

Let me try to explain:

A really good analogy to this is how HD TVs have changed the TV industry. Imagine for a moment that a website site is the film, and the TV is your browser. If you had a black and white TV, you wouldn’t expect to see the film in color. If you have a standard definition TV you don’t expect to see the full wide screen movies, and if you have a widescreen 720p TV, you don’t expect to experience the full effect of 1080p Blu-ray. Filmmakers don’t shoot in standard definition and then try to ‘upgrade’ the film to HD quality. Its pointless and a LOT of extra work. No, they shoot with the best film and resolution they can afford and then cut it down to the lower denominators when or if they support older formats.

In the same way, if you use an older browser you wouldn’t expect to get the full experience a modern browser supplies, and moreover, you likely wouldn’t even know what your missing! You don’t expect it since any other site you visit also doesn’t have those features or details. Because of this, you should be designing for the ’1080p’ of the web, and accept that users with older browsers will still get the ‘standard definition’ experience.

The Web Is Not Print

There’s also an important distinction between print and the web. The web is dynamic and fluid, highly interactive. The web is also delivered on a range of sizes and devices, from something the size of a business card up to large 30″ monitors. There comes a point where form and function have to merge in a non-trivial way to provide an experience that fits itself to the users needs, when they need it, the way they need it.

Print isn’t.

Print is extremely static, once it’s designed, it stays that way. If you design a poster, you design it to be printed at a certain size or at certain proportions. If you design a book or a magazine, you have total control over the size and layout of your spread. If you continue to think about the web this way, you’ll miss much of the dynamic nature of the web that makes it attractive as a medium.

Its only recently we’ve really gained the tools and techniques we need to REALLY break out and away from the classic printers layout due largely to the rise in mobile devices, HTML5 and CSS3. What I’m calling this “Print Format” tends to reveal itself at the extreme edge cases.


  • On large monitors where content will appear tiny and hard to read with lots of extra white space.
  • On small monitors or mobile devices when the content doesn’t scale down and your forced to scroll back and forth to read.

Over the years one of the only real solutions to address this, if someone addressed it at all, was just to never set a width for your content and just let it fill your entire screen. Although this almost works for some things, it’s difficult to read as paragraphs will stretch across the screen. You will constantly lose your place as your eyes track back and forth to the beginning of the next line. Also, if your designing a static site and you and your designers both have large screens, it’s easy to ‘fill up the space’ with ancillary or useless content and ads to make the site feel balanced. All in all, most so called solutions were hacks on a broken system.

Semi Fluid Layout

I’m finally starting to see some CSS frameworks and sites that are really starting to apply these principles. An excellent site that demonstrates this principle is the following:


No matter what browser you visit it on, or what size your browser is at, the content will be sized appropriately, the typography will be readable, and everything will feel right. Sans insane urges to resize your browser window.

One of the key benefits to designing a fluid theme is the instantly correct look you get when you open the site. Its not something people will or should consciously expect, it should simply BE the correct size the instant it appears, regardless of size, screen, or orientation. Its like walking into a store. A well designed building is easy to navigate, spacious, and consistent across all other stores you visit regardless of size. You don’t ever think about it, you’re not there to analyze the layout of the store. You’re there to buy groceries. Anything that gets in the way or makes it hard to find what you’re looking for will stick out, and if it’s bad enough, you’ll go somewhere else. Its the same way with a site or blog. Users are there for a reason: For information, or to read, or to consume whatever content you are serving up. They didn’t come to analyze your site and how it’s designed, but if they have any difficulty at all in getting to what they want in whatever form they want it in, they’ll be somewhere else in about 8 seconds.

It’s also important to be intentional about the decisions your making and how they will affect the final layout of a site. The more you reduce the complexity of the interactions, and the better defined the interactions are, the better the final end result will be. Use what you design. Do what your users do. You’ll know best what you do and don’t like and what feels right. Go with it, but don’t be afraid to stop, backtrack, or even completely scrap good ideas if they don’t fit with what you expect from the design.

Fluid Layout First

Something that’s going to become really important is to start out your design efforts knowing your designing for a fluid site like this. Laying out the groundwork and page structure is going to be extremely important to your long term sanity as a developer. There’s this concept in computer science called emergent behavior, essentially, the less you specify about a system, and by imposing fairly simple rules you can get easily get complex behavior. By starting with the containers, and then working your way to the content I have much less to worry about since most of the content takes care of itself without much more intervention from the developer.

If your someone who already has a well established, static width layout, its going to be difficult to establish a well behaved fluid grid system without tweaking MANY aspects of the site. Its probably why a lot of companies simply serve up an entirely different set of HTML and CSS for the site for mobile devices: Its easier to do than to rebuild their main site to scale all the way down to small screens.

An Introduction To Web Fonts

Back in the old days of the Internet, circa 10 years ago, people were just beginning to discover all the new cool things you could do with the web. Print was still around in full force in all its forms of magazines and newspapers. We even had individuals that made a living putting together and curating text based content. Over the years as more and more content has migrated to the web, one of the major limitations designers have faced is that they only had about 3-5 fonts that they could reliably use to format their text and be sure that the particular font they had chosen would exist on the users machine. Sometimes there would be variations, but those variations could never be guaranteed to render the same way in a users browser. Print was just extremely flexible and could provide a typographical brand and experience that the web simply couldn’t match.

As the web has continued to evolve through the browser wars and the waves of ‘web 2.0′ there was still very little change in the way text was shown in the browser. Over the last few years some of these issues have begun to be addressed, and there’s a growing amount of support in more modern browsers to express this new idea of web fonts. The core issue is that everyone is running on a different browser, different operating system, platform, or device, and each unique configuration has its own typographical settings, fonts, defaults and so on. Websites initially began experimenting with solutions to solve this issue by actually embedding a link to the font that the browser can recognize, download, cache, and use to render fonts it doesn’t already possess. But this also posed a problem: Type foundries don’t simply want their fonts to be embedded and freely downloadable and usable by whoever happens to come along and visit a site that uses one of their fonts. A font foundries whole business model is based around the licensing of the fonts they create, so having something ‘freely downloadable’ would never appeal to them.

As I have been doing some exploration on the latest and greatest of web technologies related to HTML5 for RECESS here at InterKnowlogy, I wanted to share two different approaches that I’ve found of companies that are exploring this somewhat new idea of web fonts. Chances are you may have even seen sites already that use this, but didn’t realize it or how they did it.

TypeKit – http://www.typekit.com

Google Web Fonts – http://www.google.com/webfonts

Each of these take two separate approaches that may or may not be viable to you as a designer / developer / company depending on your needs. TypeKit is arguably the more powerful and flexible options of these two, but is a paid service (although very reasonably priced). It has a large portfolio of professional grade fonts from many different foundries, including some many of the main fonts that are included in Adobe products (which I’m sure is a plus for many designers). They uses an internal obfuscation and customization process to protect the individual font from being used outside of the website that the license was purchased for. This has allowed them to negotiate deals with some of these foundries to license the fonts for web use through their company (and they’ve obviously been decently successful).

Google on the other hand, has opted for the freely available open source fonts. All the fonts used in its web fonts site are free to use for anything and are supported on a purely donational basis. This provides two advantages: All the fonts are freely available, and a single browser can cache a font and use it across any sites that also use that same font without redownloading it, this means there will be less overhead and a more consistent experience across sites that use Google Web Fonts. However, arguably the biggest downside is that the selection of fonts is much more limited. Google has done a excellent job of curating the available fonts it has to ensure that they meet some internal quality standards, but likely many of the industry standard fonts will never be available in Google’s catalog because of licensing issues.

There is some very cool things you could do with this, I’ve purposely left out many technical details in order to give a more general overview of web fonts. Hopefully this has been enlightening and has sparked some creative ideas for cool new things you could do with this technology.

Happy Typing!